Sköndals Stenhuggeri

Om företaget Gravvårdar Kontakt Stenskulpturer Om marmor Steg för steg Minnesstenar för djur Samarbetspartners Nya stenar Sven Inge Halvfabrikat Inskriptioner, dikter o.dyl. Skulpturer från olika kulturer

Skulpturer från olika kulturer har alltid inspirerat mig,speciellt de expressionistiska uttrycken man finner hos olika afrikanska stammar.Här följer ett urval från olika delar av Afrika.

 

  1. Ubanga Nyama-figurer från Lengolastammen i Kongo. Dessa träskulpturer sattes upp mitt i byn när en hövding eller prominent person hade dött. Skulpturen föreställer Suway, stammens grundare. Skulpturen tillverkas i lösa delar som sedan sammanfogas.

 

         "These figures, called ubanga nyama represent Suway, an ancestral founder of the Lengola. One such figure would have been
exhibited in the center of the village, after the burial of the high-ranking mungamba dignitary, to allow men to make invocations."
(from African Arts, January 1977, page 54.)

"The Lengola people produce large statues called Butoka, which are made from six pieces of wood and have apotropaic
functions (Intended to ward off evil) and ensure social stability. These figures are used during the initiation of the Butoko society."
and
"The role of these Lengola figures was either to ensure social stability or to represent the spirits during circumcision ceremonies
of Lengola boys."
(from The Tribal Arts of Africa - Jean-Baptiste Bacquart, page 145)

"Large Lengola figures of veneration are known as ubanga nyama. They were erected in the center of
a village after the death of a chief. These minimalist sculptures are thought to represent the Lengola’s founding ancestor,
Suway. Such figures are rare (Neyt 1981: 38) and their exact function is unknown (Biebuyck 1986:240). Biebuyck suggests the
figures allowed invocations to be made, specifically by men (1977:54).

The figures can be disassembled, possibly for storage purposes or portability, as they are used infrequently.

Typically, ubanga nyama are of elongated proportions, with a small, articulated chest above a long trunk issuing lenticular
limbs. The figures also display cruciform arms framing a concave, heart-shaped face. Most figures were painted at some time.

Stylistically, Lengola figures share formal qualities with the art of their neighbors, the Lega (Biebuyck 1986:240). The distinctive
treatment of the face, the concave heart-shaped and linear features is characteristic of both groups."
(From Sotheby's Nov 11, 2005 - LOT 108)
  
 La statue s'appelle Ubanga nyama.Elle représente l'ancêtre des Lengola.Sunway;c'est lui qui a fondé la tribu.Elle doit maintenir la stabilité du village et prévenir et guerrir les maladies.LA statue est dressé au milieu du village uniquement lorsqu'un notable Bukota meurt.Elle est montrée après l'enterrement pour permettre aux hommes de faire une invocation à l'ancêtre.Les femmes ne participent pas à la cérémonie.

Lengola beeld:Ubanga nyama genoemd.Hij stelt Sunway voor,de voorouder en stichter van de Lengola ,verzekerd de sociale stabiliteit en voorkomt en geneest ziektes. Hij wordt vereerd in de ITO cultus en in het midden van het dorp geplaatst, alleen maar als er een hoogstaande Bukota sterft;
Het wordt getoond na de begrafenis om de mannen de voorouders te aanroepen.De vrouwen zijn niet toegelaten.

 

2) Kpelie-masker från Senufostammen i Côte d’Ivoire (Elfenbenskusten)

      Maskerna  används i de hemliga initieringarna i Poro-kulten för män.

 

 

 

3)

Maternité-statyer från Senufostammen i Côte d’Ivoire (Elfenbenskusten)

 

            Cette statuette féminine est la représentation d'un esprit de la forêt (appelé mandeo, tugu ou ndeo). Assise sur un tabouret Senoufo quadripode, les mains reposant délicatement sur les genoux, cette jeune femme est sculptée de tous les attributs liés à la fertilité, ainsi que d'une coiffe complexe et de nombreuses scarifications (voir vidéo jointe). Une telle statuette constitue l'essentiel du matériel dont dispose le devin guérisseur (sando). Elle sert à la fois de réceptacle aux esprits de la forêt sensés être en relation avec le devin, et leurs donne également un visage.
Utilisée lors des pratiques de divination, cette statuette était consultée pour résoudre des problèmes personnels ou communautaires, et pour guérir des maladies (fonction apotropaïque). Une sculpture aussi élaborée était presque exclusivement réservée à l'usage du devin et à la société secrète à laquelle il appartenait (le sandogo, qui est une association féminine).

4) N’tomo- mask från Bambara-stammen i Mali.

 

     The Bamana Ntomo masks were worn by boys as they passed through the early cycle of initiation into manhood. The masks reinforce the lessons the boys are taught as they are prepared by elder males in the society for circumcision. There are two main style groups of their masks. One is characterized by an oval face with four to ten horns in a row on top like a comb, often covered with cowries or dried red berries. The other type has a ridged nose, a protruding mouth, a superstructure of vertical horns, in the middle of which or in front of which is a standing figure or an animal. The ntomo masks with thin
mouths underscore the virtue of silence and the importance of controlling one’s speech. During their time in ntomo the boys
learn to accept discipline. They do not yet have access to the secret knowledge related to korè and other initiation societies. Members wore a wooden face mask during the initiation festival at harvest time and when begging for rice
.

One reference sites the number of horns on such masks to symbolizes a human being's levels of increased knowledge based on the initiation stages, while another reference sites that Ntomo masks with an even number of horns are female and those
with an odd number of horns are male. Some masks are plain wood with no decoration while others are covered in brass reprouse, cowrie shells or small red seeds with further esoteric significance and the masks will vary greatly by region. The miniature mask rising from the forehead can be compared to other Ntomo masks that feature a full human or animal figure.
The wearer of these masks will usually be seen walking through the village and entering the family compounds to announce a ritual or a puppet masquerade. The village association comprises female and male divisions and is organized according to age
groups (flan-bolow). One enters the ton after circumcision and leaves it at the age of about thirty -five. Every year the ton organizes a festival (called Checko) of theatrical performances in the village square. These include koteba and the puppets
known as sogo bo in a succession of light-hearted sketches that satirize aspects of Bamana social and religious life.
Prior to the public performances, ton members parade through the village streets accompanying masks (sogow) such as Ngon
and Ntomo. Sogobaw (big beasts) resemble small, mobile theaters with a head and a wood-frame body. Small puppets, expertly manipulated, emerge from the back of this “beast”." - Sources Bamana: The Art of Existence in Mali, Africa: The Art of a Continent, A History of Art in Africa

 

5)Merekun-marionetter från Bamana-stammen i Mali.

 

            BAMANA, Merekun Puppets, Mali

Sogo bo, the puppet masquerade drama of the Bamana, is an exploration of the moral universe.
The relationship between men and women and the problems of domestic relations in polygamous households are important concerns of many Sogo bo performances. Conflict among co-wives is a popular theme in many stories and two of the main characters areBarabara, the Favorite Wife, and the Galomuso, the Bad Wife. Like folktales and other theatrical forms, these masquerade performances throw cultural values and social relationships into high relief and open them up for public scrutiny.

The largest group of masquerade characters and the oldest performed in the theater are bush animals (see Bamana Animal Puppets).

from The Sogow by Mary Jo Arnoldi in Bamana: The Art of Existence in Mali. New York: Museum of African Art

 

 

6)Akua Ba-docka från Ashantistammen i Ghana. Bärs av unga kvinnor som vill bli gravida.

 

 

             The Akua'ba doll is produced by Ghana's Asante (Ashanti) people. It takes its name from the story of Akua, a young woman who was unable to become pregnant. In despair, she visited the local priest and implored him to help her. She was told to have the town's most skilled carver craft a wooden baby for her. She would then treat the carving as if it were here own child, carrying it with her, cradling and caring for it. Akua followed the priest's advice faithfully and soon conceived a child. Her story became an example for other young women and the fertility dolls they took to carrying were given her name. Akua'ba dolls typically have huge flat moon-heads with serene features. Their stick-thin bodies and outstretched arms give each one a silhouette resembling a little cross topped with a giant disk.

 

 

7)Solmask från Bwa-stammen,Burkina Faso. Användes för att fira skördetiden.

 

8)   Djurmask från Bwa-stammen,Burkina Faso

 

     Among the Bwa of Burkina Faso, masks represent a number of characters, based on myths - animals including the antelope, buffalo, monkey, bush-pig, crocodile, butterfly & the hawk. Other masks represents bush spirits that take supernatural forms. The masks are linked to all important events in Bwa village life. Wooden masks reintegrate man into village society following the harvest, when farmers must return to village society and conform to rules for correct social behavior. The masks serve as agents for social control in these villages and are very family oriented.

 

 

 

 

 
Copyright 2007, Sköndals Stenhuggeri